All kit components of this kit are stable at 2 to 8°C. Any unused reconstituted standard should be discarded or frozen at -70°C. Standard can be frozen and thawed one time only without loss of immunoreactivity.
< 1.47 pg/ml
Sample Type :
Human serum, plasma, cell lysate, culture supernates, buffered solution
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), also known as gamma-seminoprotein or kallikrein-3 (KLK3), is a glycoprotein encoded in humans by the KLK3 gene. PSA is a member of the kallikrein-related peptidase family and is secreted by the epithelial cells of the prostate gland. PSA is produced for the ejaculate, where it liquefies semen in the seminal coagulum and allows sperm to swim freely. It is also believed to be instrumental in dissolving cervical mucus, allowing the entry of sperm into the uterus.
PSA is present in small quantities in the serum of men with healthy prostates, but is often elevated in the presence of prostate cancer or other prostate disorders. The United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF, 2012) does not recommend PSA screening, noting that the test may result in “overdiagnosis” and “overtreatment” because "most prostate cancer is asymptomatic for life," and treatments involve risks of complications. The USPSTF concludes "the potential benefit does not outweigh the expected harms."
The physiological function of KLK3 is the dissolution of the coagulum, the sperm entrapping gel composed of semenogelins and fibronectin. Its proteolic action is effective in liquefying the coagulum so that the sperm can be liberated. The activity of PSA is well regulated. In the prostate it is present as an inactive pro-form which is activated through the action of KLK2, another kallikrein-related peptidase. In the prostate, zinc ion concentrations are ten times higher than in other bodily fluids. Zinc ions have a strong inhibitory effect on the activity of PSA and on that of KLK2, so that PSA is totally inactive. Further regulation is achieved through pH variations. Although its activity is increased by higher pH, the inhibitory effect of zinc also increases.